Monday, March 27, 2017
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1,4-Butanediol

1,4-Butanediol1,4-Butanediol is currently Unscheduled in the United States. It is a gray area in the law because it may be illegal under the Federal Analog Act.

Addictive Potential: Medium

Emergency Room Visits Yearly: Unknown

Mandatory Minimum Sentence: Unknown

Mechanism of Action: GABA (B) agonist; GHB receptor agonist

Overview:

1,4-Butanediol is also referred to as 1,4-BD and BD. It is a colorless, viscous, and nearly odorless liquid. 1,4-Butanediol is a CNS depressant with two types of pharmacological actions. The major psychoactive effects of 1,4-butanediol are due to its metabolic conversion to GHB in the body; however, Poldrugo and Snead (1984) suggested that 1,4-butanediol may have potential alcohol-like pharmacological effects that are not due to this conversion.

Substance Identification:

     Mandelin Reagent     Marquis Reagent   
1,4-Butanediol Brown Faint brown

(Info provided by SWG, 2005)

Warnings:

Do not use 1,4-Butanediol with alcohol. Ingesting 1,4-butanediol in combination with ethanol may increase the risk of death or renal and hepatic damage. 1,4-butanediol also potentiates the effects of ethanol. Plus, through the competitive inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase, ethanol often delays the effects of 1,4-butanediol (Zvosec et al., 2001).

1,4-Butanediol can be physically addictive and may result in psychological addiction. Around-the-clock ingestion with short dosing intervals appear to be necessary for the development of addiction. Zvosec et al. (2001) explained that the symptoms of 1,4-Butanediol withdrawal include “anxiety, confusion, tremor, mild tachycardia and hypertension, agitation, insomnia, delirium, delusions, and auditory, visual, and tactile hallucinations.”

Side Effects & Adverse Reactions:

Central nervous system effects have been reported following oral dosing at 25 mg/kg body weight. More significant negative effects occur at higher doses (NICNAS, 2014). Numerous case reports describe the negative effects of ingesting 1,4-butanediol. According to Zvosec et al. (2001), these negative effects include:

  • dizziness
  • agitation
  • ataxia
  • confusion
  • vomiting
  • amnesia
  • loss of consciousness
  • fecal incontinence
  • coma
  • death

Remember, although some people are willing to ingest 1,4-Butanediol, it is unreasonable to assume that it is in any way safe to use recreationally.

Deaths & Overdoses:

Research:

More Info:

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