This is a talk from Horizons 2009. Profound experiences of non-dual consciousness sometimes lead to lasting, and lastingly beneficial, changes in values and behavior. Various activities (prayer, meditation, chanting, dancing, fasting) have been used to occasion such “primary religious experiences,” and various wisdom traditions have developed practices and social vessels to increase the chances that a given experience will lead to lasting benefit. How can we gain scientific knowledge of these phenomena? How can we create social understandings that would make seeking out primary experiences seem less unusual than it now does to most westerners? How can we encourage the development of social contexts that would serve as appropriate vessels? Bob will discuss the psilocybin research he and his colleagues conducted at Johns Hopkins, which showed that psilocybin experiences can have substantial and sustained positive effects in healthy people.