Tuesday, February 21, 2017
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Butorphanol

ButorphanolButorphanol is Schedule IV in the United States. This means it is illegal to sell without a DEA license and illegal to buy or possess without a license or prescription.

Addictive Potential: Low

Emergency Room Visits Yearly: Unknown

Mandatory Minimum Sentence: Unknown

Mechanism of Action: κ opioid receptor antagonist and partial agonist; μ opioid receptor antagonist and partial agonist

Overview:

Butorphanol is a morphinan-type synthetic opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers. The most common medical use for butorphanol is for the management of migraines using the intranasal spray formulation. Additionally, it is used as a supplement for balanced general anesthesia and the management of pain during labor. Butorphanol is also used in veterinary medicine. In 2013, the EMCDDA found butorphanol being distributed as a recreational drug.

As for pharmacological action, butorphanol exhibits partial agonist and antagonist activity at the μ opioid receptor, as well as competitive antagonist activity and partial agonist activity at the κ opioid receptor (Gear, 1999).

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions:

According to NIH (2014), the butorphanol intranasal spray may cause a variety of negative effects including:

  • drowsiness
  • unusual dreams
  • dizziness
  • nausea and vomiting
  • constipation, stomach pain, and/or loss of appetite
  • feeling hot, sweating, and/or flushing
  • pain, numbness, or tingling in the hands or feet
  • uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
  • nervousness
  • confusion
  • agitation and hostility
  • intense happiness
  • feeling of floating
  • feeling of sadness, unpleasantness, or discomfort
  • blurred vision
  • dry mouth
  • difficulty urinating
  • nosebleeds
  • stuffy or irritated nose
  • sore throat

NIH (2014) emphasized that certain side effects should be considered serious and if any of the following symptoms are experienced, a doctor should be contacted immediately:

  • slowed breathing
  • difficulty breathing
  • fainting
  • irregular or pounding heartbeat
  • headache
  • lightheadedness
  • hallucinations
  • rash and/or hives

Research:

More Info:

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