Addictive Potential: Unknown
Emergency Room Visits Yearly: Unknown
Mandatory Minimum Sentence: Unknown
Mechanism of Action: a potent serotonin and norepinephrine releaser, a reduced activity as a releaser of dopamine, and a strong inhibitor of monoaminoxidase (MAOa)
PMMA is also known as para-Methoxy-N-methylamphetamine, 4-MMA, death, and DOONE. It is structurally related to PMA, and it an entactogen that produces effects characterized by euphoria and increased energy.
According to Bijl (2014), “PMMA tablets contain between 20 and 97 mg. PMMA has stimulant and hallucinogenic effects with doses of less than 50 mg.” Bijl also noted that “Doses over 60 to 80 mg are potentially lethal, especially in the presence of another psychoactive drug like alcohol.”
|Mecke Reagent Mandelin Reagent||Marquis Reagent|
|PMMA||Pale Olive Green Rust||No Color Change|
(Info provided by EMCDDA)
Side Effects and Adverse Reactions:
According to Bijl (2014), the PMMA may cause a variety of negative effects including:
- Extreme hyperthermia
- Arrhythmias due to hyperkalemia
- Dry mouth
- Severe coagulopathy
- Teeth grinding
- Difficulty speaking
- Death (due to serotonin syndrome)
Deaths and Overdoses:
In 2011, Norway reported 12 deaths, the Dutch reported 4 deaths, and Scotland reported 4 deaths related to PMMA.
In 2012, a number of ecstasy-related deaths in Canada in the previous year were linked to PMMA overdoses. As well, the deaths of two men in Ireland were linked to PMMA overdoses, and the death of a man in Australia was attributed to PMMA.
In December 2012 and January 2013, several deaths linked to PMMA in the UK. In June 2013 a PMMA-related death occurred in the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Two months later, in August 2013, another possibly PMMA-related death occurred in the nearby town of Sliedrecht.
In January 2015 in the UK four people died, suspected of taking ecstasy containing PMMA. In the same month, in Sweden, another man died from ecstasy laced with PMMA.
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