B Vitamins are uncontrolled in the United States.
Addictive Potential: None
Emergency Room Visits Yearly: No recorded hospital visits
Mandatory Minimum Sentence: None
Mechanism of Action: wide range
Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. The name arises because it was once considered a single vitamin, much like Vitamin C or Vitamin D. Since later research has shown it is in fact a complex of chemically distinct vitamins that happen to often coexist in the same foods, the name has gradually declined in use, being replaced by the generic term “the B vitamins”, the vitamin B complex, or by the specific names of each vitamin.
List of B vitamins:
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vitamin B2, (Riboflavin)
Vitamin B3, also Vitamin P or Vitamin PP (Niacin)
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine and Pyridoxamine)
Vitamin B7, also Vitamin H
Vitamin B9, also Vitamin M and Vitamin B-c (Folic acid) – important for pregnancies
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
B vitamins Deficiency:
Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B-vitamins.
- Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency causes Beriberi. Symptoms of this disease of the nervous system include weight loss, emotional disturbances, Wernicke’s encephalopathy (impaired sensory perception), weakness and pain in the limbs, periods of irregular heartbeat, and edema (swelling of bodily tissues). Heart failure and death may occur in advanced cases.
- Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) deficiency causes Ariboflavinosis. Symptoms may include cheilosis (cracks in the lips), high sensitivity to sunlight, angular cheilitis, glossitis (inflammation of the tongue), seborrheic dermatitis or pseudo-syphilis (particularly affecting the scrotum or labia majora and the mouth), pharyngitis, hyperemia, and edema of the pharyngeal and oral mucosa]].
- Vitamin B3 (Niacin) deficiency, along with a deficiency of tryptophan causes Pellagra. Symptoms include aggression, dermatitis, insomnia, weakness, mental confusion, and diarrhea. In advanced cases, pellagra may lead to dementia and death.
- Deficiencies of other B vitamins result in symptoms that are not part of a named deficiency disease.
- Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) deficiency can result in Paresthesia, although it is uncommon.
- Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) deficiency may lead to anemia, depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension) and elevated levels of homocysteine.
- Vitamin B8 deficiency does not typically cause symptoms in adults but may lead to impaired growth and neurological disorders in infants.
- Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) deficiency results in elevated levels of homocysteine. Deficiency in pregnant women can lead to birth defects.
- Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) deficiency causes pernicious anemia, memory loss and other cognitive decline. It is most likely to occur among elderly people as absorption through the gut declines with age. In extreme (fortunately rare) cases paralysis can result.
Other substances which are very similar in structure and function to the B vitamins have been discovered. Many of them are vitamins to various plants and animals which cannot synthesize their own. None of these are vitamins to humans, because humans can synthesize their own, though some only technically so (choline, for instance, can be metabolized in humans by canabalizing cells to make use of the choline they contain, killing the cells in the process).
The vitamin concept can be rather misleading, since it focuses on only one aspect of a nutrient (whether or not the body is incapable of making its own from other sources), rather than upon the overall benefits the nutrient provides and its contribution to optimal health. There are many nutrients which the body can make, or which don’t cause dificiency syndromes, but nevertheless are still beneficial to take as dietary supplements. The term “essential”, which in common English may refer to any objective, has been co-opted by the medical field for the specific aspect of vitamins just mentioned. But many nutrients are essential in other ways, such as for boosting certain subsystems of the body or brain above normal performance, or for optimizing health and function. But when a nutrient is referred to as “non-essential”, as the term is used in the medical and nutrition fields, persons who are not well educated in nutritional matters may incorrectly interpret this to mean “not essential for any purpose”, when the term is only referring to the fact that the body can make its own. The structure of language as applied to nutrition makes it more difficult than usual to communicate about the subject clearly. By highjacking existing words and giving them new nutritional meanings, rather than creating new words from scratch for this purpose, researchers have made it difficult to speak about nutrition to speakers of common English and still be understood. For instance, to call these “non-human vitamins” may lead a listener to believe that they are not essential to humans, period. But such is not the case.
Many of the following substances have been referred to as vitamins because they were believed to be vitamins at one time. Most of them are vitamins with respect to certain plants and animals. And even though they are “non-essential” to humans only in the sense that they don’t qualify to be called vitamins, they are all essential for maintaining other aspects of human health.
Vitamin B4 (Adenine) –
Vitamin B7 (Vitamin I) – more commonly called alcohol soluble Rice bran anti digestive disterbance factor in Pigions; Inositol, Nicotinic acid, & Biotin are possibles. Note: Carnitine has also been claimed but is not possible as it is insoluble in alchohol.
Vitamin B8 (Ergadenylic acid) –
Vitamin B10 (para-aminobenzoic acid, or PABA)–
Vitamin B11 (Pteryl-hepta-glutamic acid) – Chick growth factor, which is a form of Folic acid. Later found to be one of five folates necessary for humans); (L-carnitine) in France.
Vitamin B13 (Pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) – Also known as Orotic acid, often misspelled erotic acid.
Vitamin B14 – cell proliferant, anti-anemia, rat growth, an antitumor pterin phosphate named by Earl R. Norris (biochemist of folic acid fame) isolated from human urine at 0.33ppm (later in blood), but later abandoned by him as further evidence did not comfirm this. He also clamed this was not Xanthopterin as the French do.
Vitamin B15 (Pangamic acid) –
Vitamin B16 (dimethylgycine) – also known as DMG. (However Lipoic acid was discovered and named a B-Vitamin after B15 and before B17)
Vitamin B17 (Amygdalin) –
Vitamin B18 –
Vitamin B19 –
Vitamin B20 (Carnitine) –
Vitamin B21 –
Vitamin B22 – often claimed as an ingredient of Aloe vera extracts but also in many other foods. Claimed by one source to be Vitamin B12b-delta. first mentioned on internet in reference to Natropath Linda Clark’s book “Know your Nutrition”
Vitamin Bh – another name for(biotin)
Vitamin Bm (“mouse factor”) – also used to designate Inositol
Vitamin Bp (Choline) –
Vitamin Bt (L-carnitine) –
Vitamin Bv – a type of B6 but not Pyrodoxine
Vitamin Bw – a type of Biotin but not d-Biotin
Vitamin Bx – another name for PABA (para-Aminobenzoic acid)
Note: B16, B17, B18, B19, B20, B21 & B22 do not appear to be animal factors but are claimed by Naturopaths as human therapedic factors.
The B vitamins often work together to deliver a number of health benefits to the body. B vitamins have been shown to:
- Bolster metabolism
- Maintain healthy skin and muscle tone
- Enhance immune and nervous system function
- Promote cell growth and division — including that of the red blood cells that help prevent anemia
- Together, they also help combat the symptoms and causes of stress, depression, and cardiovascular disease
All B vitamins are water soluble, and are dispersed throughout the body and must be replenished daily with any excess excreted in the urine (which turns a bright yellow color).
Vitamin B Sources
Vitamin B comes from a number of natural sources, including potatoes, bananas, cereal, lentils, chili peppers, tempeh, liver, turkey, and tuna. Nutritional yeast (or Brewer’s yeast) is an especially good source of Vitamin B. Another popular means of increasing one’s Vitamin B intake is through supplements, purchased at supermarkets, health centers, or natural food stores.